To read the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations in full, see:
For depictions of safe infant sleep surfaces, see What does a safe sleep environment look like? on the NICHD Safe to Sleep® website.
For information on safety standards for infant products, including sleep surfaces, see contact the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) at 1-800-638-2772 or visit CPSC’s website page about infant and toddler products.
For information about the hazards of crib bumpers, read Federal safety official reminds parents: Crib bumpers are pointless, possibly dangerous (2017). [Article]
For detailed information on safety with slings and other “baby wearing” products, see
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Strategies to prevent obesity and other chronic diseases: The CDC guide to strategies to support breastfeeding mothers and babies. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Eidelman, A. I., Schanler, R. J., Johnston, M., Landers, S., Noble, L., Szucs, K., & Viehmann, L. (2012). Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics, 129(3), e827-e841.
Moon, R. Y., & AAP Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (2016). SIDS and other sleep-related infant deaths: Evidence base for 2016 updated recommendations for a safe infant sleeping environment. Pediatrics, 138(5), e20162940.
Moon, R. Y., & AAP Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (2017). Author’s response to Letter to the Editor by Cooper, C., entitled “RE: Room-sharing versus bed-sharing” and Frankel, L.A., entitled “RE: Room-sharing until 12 months.” Pediatrics, 139(3), pii: e20164132C. doi:10.1542/peds.2016-4132C
Oden, R. P., Joyner, B. L., Ajao, T. I., & Moon, R. Y. (2010). Factors influencing African American mothers' decisions about sleep position: A qualitative study. Journal of the National Medical Association, 102(10), 870-2, 875-80.
Tully, K. P., Holditch-Davis, D., & Brandon, D. (2015). The relationship between planned and reported home infant sleep locations among mothers of late preterm and term infants. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 19(7), 1616-1623. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4620554/
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2011). The Surgeon General's call to action to support breastfeeding. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Surgeon General.
Victora, C. G., Bahl, R., Barros, A. J., França, G. V., Horton, S., Krasevec, J. Lancet Breastfeeding Series Group. (2016). Breastfeeding in the 21st century: Epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect. The Lancet, 387(10017), 475-490. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)01024-7