Injury-Related Hospitalizations of Children and Adolescents

The Maternal and Child Health Bureau's (MCHB's) Title V Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grants to States Program has established 15 National Performance Measures for the 2015-2017 grant cycle. Performance Measure 7 is the rate of injury-related admissions per population ages 0-19 years. This evidence brief points to a selection of resources for state MCH programs about injury and violence prevention and about emergency medical services for children, with emphasis on evidence based information.

Significance

The Title V Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant to States Program guidance1 defines the significance of this goal as follows:

Injury is the leading cause of child mortality. For those who suffer non-fatal severe injuries, many will become children with special health care needs. Effective interventions to reduce injury exist but are not fully implemented in systems of care that serve children and their families. Reducing the burden of nonfatal injury can greatly improve the life course trajectory of infants, children, and adolescents resulting in improved quality of life and cost savings.

Read More about Performance Measure 7

PERFORMANCE MEASURE 7

Rate of injury-related hospital admissions per population ages 0-19 years

GOAL

To decrease the number of injury-related hospital admissions among children ages 0-19 years

DEFINTION

Numerator: Number of hospital admissions among children ages 0-19 years with a diagnosis of unintentional or intentional injury. (first admission for an injury event, excludes readmissions for same event)

  • Denominator: Number of children and adolescents ages 0-19 years
  • Units: 100
  • Text: Percent

Healthy People 2020 Objectives

Related to Injury and Violence Prevention (IVP) Objective 1.2: Reduce hospitalizations for nonfatal injuries. (Baseline: 617.6 per 100,000. Target: 555.8 per 100,000.)

Data Sources and Data Issues

State Hospital Discharge data in the State Inpatient Databases (SID).

Data and Statistics 

  • Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ): Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). This project is a family of databases and related software tools and products developed through a federal-state-industry partnership and sponsored by AHRQ. Databases include National Inpatient Sample, Kids Inpatient Database, Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, State Inpatient Databases, State Ambulatory Surgery and Services Database, and State Emergency Department Databases. The State Inpatient Databases are the source of data for Performance Measure 6. Studies of the data from these databases can be identified in PubMed or Google Scholarby searching the name of the database, e.g., "kids inpatient database".
  • Children's Safety Network: State Information. These state fact sheets provide a snapshot of data on the injury-related Maternal and Child Health Block Grant National Performance Measures and Health Status Indicators, articles that highlight injury prevention work in each state, state-specific report plans and data, and state contact information. Data include deaths and hospital-admitted injuries by age group and cause.
  • Healthy People 2020: Injury and Violence Prevention. Lists objectives for injury and violence prevention, evidence-based information and recommendations and national data that track the progress in meeting the objectives. Objective IVP-1.2 refers to reducing hospitalizations for nonfatal injuries.

Key Websites 

Policy Recommendations 

Interventions

  • Guide to Community Preventive Services: What Works to Promote Health. Collection of all Community Preventive Services Task Force findings and the systematic reviews on which they are based. Injury-related information is included in the topics adolescent healthalcoholmotor vehicle injury, and violence. Resources to help the public health community use the guide are included. The guide is sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  • Pubmed Health. Reviews of clinical effectiveness research, with easy-to-read summaries for consumers as well as full technical reports. This resource is a service of the National Library of Medicine.
  • Aratani Y, Schwarz SW, Skinner C. 2011. The economic impact of adolescent health promotion policies and programs. Adolescent Medicine: State of the Art Reviews 22(3):367-86, ix. View abstract.
  • Buckley L, Chapman RL, Sheehan M. 2014. Young driver distraction: state of the evidence and directions for behavior change programs. Journal of Adolescent Health 54(5 Suppl):S16-21. View abstract.
  • Pomerantz WJ, Gittelman MA, Ho M, Hornung RW. 2013. Can the reduction of pediatric injury rates be sustained using a community-based approach? Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 75(4 Suppl 3):S276-80. View abstract.
  • Thakore RV, Apfeld JC, Johnson RK, Sathiyakumar V, Jahangir AA, Sethi MK. 2014. School-based violence prevention strategy: a pilot evaluation. Journal of Injury and Violence Research 7(2):[In press].
  • Wilkins N, Thigpen S, Lockman J, Mackin J, Madden M, Perkins T, Schut J, Van Regenmorter C, Williams L, Donovan J. 2013. Putting program evaluation to work: A framework for creating actionable knowledge for suicide prevention practice. Translational Behavioral Medicine 3(2):149-61.

Further Reading

Related NCEMCH Resources

 

1Health Resources and Services Administration. 2014. Title V Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant to States Program: Guidance and Forms for the Title V Application/Annual Report, Appendix F, p. 80.


Injury-Related Hospitalizations of Children and Adolescents: Evidence Brief, 1st ed. (November 2014). Author: Olivia K. Pickett, M.A., M.L.S., NCEMCH